Reverse osmosis water flow

Reverse osmosis removes contaminants from unfiltered water, or feedwater when pressure forces it through a semipermeable membrane. Water flows from the more concentrated side (more contaminants) of the RO membrane to the less concentrated side (fewer contaminants) to provide clean drinking water. The freshwater produced is called the permeate. The concentrated water left over is called the waste or brine. A semipermeable membrane has small pores that block contaminants but allow water molecules to flow through. In osmosis, water becomes more concentrated as it passes through the membrane to obtain equilibrium on both sides. Reverse osmosis, however, blocks contaminants from entering the less concentrated side of the membrane. For example, when pressure is applied to a volume of saltwater during RO, the salt is left behind and only clean water flows through.